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D+C  e-Paper  August 2016 35 well-defined targets serve the pur­ poses of implementation, reporting and monitoring. Soft enforcement mechanisms such as peer reviews pro­ vide opportunities for learning and are also valuable tools to assess and encourage progress. 7. Roles and responsibilities must be defined unambiguously in order to ensure accountability. 8. It is necessary to focus on results, not inputs. The ability to demon­ strate a straightforward link between resources and outcomes helps to bring actors on board and to keep them committed. 9. Progress towards goals and targets must be monitored. Solid data serves evidence-based decision-making and facilitates accountability. 10. Sufficient financial resources must be mobilised and used effectively. With­ out reliable and predictable funding, partnerships can neither pursue long- term strategies nor spur innovation. Moreover, the pooled funds are an important incentive for joint action and reduce the risk of fragmentation. These ten rules make obvious sense. That is not surprising, since they are rooted in the empirical evidence of 10 other case studies apart from assessing the GPEDC. The DCR 2015 also deals with: ■ ■ the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundations’ engagement in partnerships such as the vaccine alliance Gavi, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and others, ■ ■ the Global Partnership for Education, ■ ■ Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All), ■ ■ the Aid-for-Trade Initiative (AfT), ■ ■ the Effective Institutions Platform (EIP), ■ ■ the International Dialogue on Peace­ building and Statebuilding (IDPS), ■ ■ the Partnership in Statistics for Develop­ ment in the 21st Century (PARIS21), ■ ■ the Grow Africa partnership and ■ ■ Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). If decision-makers stick to the principles listed above, the SDGs can be achieved. This is the way to start a virtuous cir­ cle of action, with good results leading to further commitment which again delivers good results. The alternative is business as usual, which is likey to result in a vicious circle of failure that undermines global governance, dimin­ ishes trust and delivers only very limited results. Link OECD: Development Co-operation Report 2015 – Making partnerships effective coalitions for action. report-20747721.htm Hildegard Lingnau wrote this essay in her capacity as senior counsellor at the OECD. She has since become the head of cooperation at the German Embassy in Kenya. This contribution reflects her personal views. [email protected] Keeping up the momentum Growing global interdependence is noth- ing new. Global governance, however, has not kept pace. Policies are still mostly drafted and implemented at the nation state level, even though most challenges are international and cannot be dealt with by national governments acting on their own. Global warming, contagious diseases and financial stability are only three of many examples. Globalisation is making the notion of state sovereignty problematic. Forms of inter- national cooperation are changing and forming a complex system of global gov- ernance. This system, however, is ham- pered by many things, including the un­ even performance of governments in regard to international commitments and the insufficient harmonisation of develop- ment efforts. According to the UN Committee for Devel- opment Policy, “important areas of com- mon interest are currently not covered, or sparsely covered, by global governance mechanisms, while other areas are consid- ered to be overdetermined or overregu- lated.” Indeed, multilateral initiatives of the past two decades did not improve global governance as desired. Important steps included the UN summits on Financing for Development in Monter- rey (2002), Doha (2010) and Addis Ababa (2015), the annual UN climate summits or the High-Level Forums on Aid Effective- ness in Rome (2003), Paris (2005), Accra (2008) and Busan (2011). Some principles bear repetition. They include the five pillars of aid and develop- ment-effectiveness as were spelled out in the Paris Declaration at the High-Level Forum in 2005: ■ ■ Ownership: developing countries are the owners of their development. ■ ■ Alignment: development assistance must be aligned to their policies, institu- tions and proceedures. ■ ■ Harmonisation: donor governments’ development partners must harmonise their action. ■ ■ Managing for results: management must be geared to results. ■ ■ Mutual accountability: the parties involved must be mutually accountable. Though these principles have left their mark on development cooperation, imple- mentation has been uneven. The confer- ence in Nairobi in November/December this year will provide an opportunity to discuss the matter and update the coop- eration principles: the Kenyan govern- ment will host the second High-Level Meeting (HLM2) of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Partnership (GPEDC). The GPEDC was launched in Busan in 2011 to keep up the momentum of the aid/ development-effectiveness agenda. On behalf of the OECD, researchers have assessed its strong and weak points. The involvement of cabinet-level leaders has helped drive the aid/development-effec- tiveness agenda, and so did the well- defined principles and ongoing monitor- ing. Downsides, however, included the great complexity of the agenda and the lack of instruments to enforce non-bind- ing commitments. The GPEDC could ben- efit from applying the guidelines for good partnerships that the OECD has spelled out in its Development Cooperation Report 2015, which is based on the empiri- cal evidence of the GPEDC and 10 other global partnerships (see main article). Link progress/explore-monitoring-data/