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6 D+C  e-Paper  December 2015 and the perspectives for Central Africa, Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi and Zambia were still unclear. Three important topics remain untouched moreover: industrial policy, good management of mineral resources and deep regional integration geared to sustainable growth. The author appreciates that African countries regained policy space for their agro-industrial strategies. They are, more- over, equipped with tools to protect indus- tries. This is an outcome, which the Euro- pean NGO-association CONCORD should appreciate, writes Asche, especially as the EPAs will not threaten further regional integration. Transatlantic risks Whereas the EPAs were narrowed down to the trade in goods, the EU is moving towards “deep” economic integration in talks with the USA (TTIP) and Canada (CETA). “Deep” integration goes beyond customs-reductions and the like. It is geared to shared rules for investments, services and free movement of capital. According to Asche, TTIP and CETA would lead to a deregulation “in an unprec- edented scale” in all spheres of daily life. In his view, TTIP is relevant for ACP countries because it will inspire future EPA talks. The EU Commission has com- missioned a series of studies to asses the impacts of TTIP-spurred economic growth between the EU and North America. The projections are generally positive, but the methods used are debatable, to put it mildly. In a similar sense, Asche chal- lenges expert rhetoric that dismisses impacts on third countries as “not dra- matic”. In contrast, Asche warns that deep economic integration between the EU and North America will happen at the expense of developing countries. Asche states that African countries are set to lose the competitive advantage they now have thanks to duty-free access to EU. Moreover, he points out that none of the positive trickle-down effects some EU experts forecast will occur automati- cally. The weak bond of trust between the EU and African partners is likely to be strained even more, he argues. Asche admits, however, that it does not make sense to maintain old trade bar- riers between North America and the EU just for the sake of developing countries. Asche calls for „flat“ TTIP-negotiations that ensure positive effects on third coun- tries. Two German think tanks, Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) and Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (SWP), have made similar demands. Asche pro- poses an institutional platform such as an ACP TTIP Advisory Council. In such a set- ting, developing countries could bring for- ward their arguments. The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) could become involved as well. In order to prevent negative TTIP- effects on developing countries, Asche proposes following two principles: ■■ “do good” by assessing the impacts of TTIP on developing countries before- hand and during the negotiations, and ■■ “do no harm” by ensuring that EU-US harmonisation of standards is accept- able to third countries.Theresa  Krinninger Link: Heinrich Böll Foundation: Europe, Africa, and the Transatlantic. The north–south challenge for development friendly trade policy. europe_africa_transatlantic.pdf Ghana and Ivory Coast were ready to strike a separate trade deal for the sake of cocoa exports. Giling/Lineair